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Настройка samba: сетевые папки с поддержкой русского языка Печать
 

Настраиваем файл /etc/samba/smb.conf, в которм описываем доступ к папкам с учительского компьютера teacher.aud411 (компьютер с IP-адресом 10.0.11.254).

Делаем сами секцию в файле /etc/init.d/smb.conf:

[files]
  comment = files in aud411
  path = /home/netclass
  valid users = student teacher nobody
  public = yes

[alt]
  comment = ALT-Linux lite
  path = /home/alt/ALTLinux.4.0-lite/
  valid users = student teacher nobody
  public = yes

т.е. расшариваем папки /home/netclass и /home/alt/ALTLinux.4.0-lite с учительского компа под именем files и alt соответсвенно. Доступ к ним будет разрешён для пользователей student, teacher, и nobody, которые прописан в системе (/etc/pаsswd).

Так как у нас в smb.conf есть строчка:
smb passwd file = /etc/samba/smbpasswd
то для доступа через сервис samba этих пользователей необходимо прописать в файле /etc/samba/smbpasswd. через команды:

smbpasswd -a student
smbpasswd -a teacher
smbpasswd -a nobody


Для поддержки русских символов в секции [Global] необходимо установить следующие параменты:

dos charset = CP866
unix charset = UTF8
display charset = LOCALE

Пример файла /etc/samba/smb.conf представлен здесь


Перезагружаем samb-у:

service smb restart

Кстати, если сервис не загружается по умолчанию, то рекомендую это сделать.

На студенческих компьютерах (клиентских машинах) для подключения сетевой папки по сети нужно выполнить следующую команду (для монтирования потребуются соответвующие права, которые есть, например у пользователя root):

mount -t cifs //10.0.11.254/files /mnt/net -o ro,user,uid=500,gid=500,username=student,password=student,codepage=cp866,iocharset=utf8

Параметры codepage=cp866 и iocharset=utf8 обеспечат нам корректное отображение русских символов в названиях каталогов и файлов.

Для упрощения выполнения этой операции рекомендую на машинках в классе в файле /etc/fstab прописать строчки:

//10.0.11.254/files	/mnt/net	cifs	\
ro,user,uid=500,gid=500,username=student,password=student,\
codepage=cp866,iocharset=utf8	0 0
//10.0.11.254/alt	/mnt/alt	cifs	\
ro,user,uid=500,gid=500,username=student,password=student,\
codepage=cp866,iocharset=utf8	0 0

На пользовательских машинах также должен быть пользователь student.

Идентификатор uid - это идентификатор пользователя student на пользовательской машине (/etc/pаsswd).
Идентификатор gid - это идентификатор группы пользователя student на пользовательской машине (/etc/group).

Минус сей комбинации в том, что если учительская машина не включится до пользовательской, то сетевые папки автоматом не подмонтируются, но благодаря записи в fstab, можно под root-ом дать такую команду подключения сетевого ресурса:

mount /mnt/net
или
mount /mnt/alt
для подключения соотвествующей сетевой папки.

P.S.: C smbfs такой номер не проходит - видимо незнает она про кодировку UTF8, хотя во времена Red Hat 7 и 9 связка cp866 и koi8-r отлично работала.



Пример файла /etc/samba/smb.conf
(изменённые от стандартных параметры выделены красным):
# This is the main Samba configuration file. You should read the
# smb.conf(5) manual page in order to understand the options listed
# here. Samba has a huge number of configurable options (perhaps too
# many!) most of which are not shown in this example
#
# Any line which starts with a ; (semi-colon) or a # (hash) 
# is a comment and is ignored. In this example we will use a #
# for commentry and a ; for parts of the config file that you
# may wish to enable
#
# NOTE: Whenever you modify this file you should run the command "testparm"
# to check that you have not made any basic syntactic errors. 
#
#======================= Global Settings =====================================
[global]
# ***  THIS HAS TO GO FIRST TO MAKE OTHER STRING PARAMETERS PROPERLY WORKING ***
# ******************************************************************************
# Enabling internationalization:
# you can match a Windows code page with a UNIX character set.
# Windows: CP437 (US, default), CP737 (GREEK),
# CP850 (Latin1 - Western European), CP852 (Eastern Eu.), CP861 (Icelandic),
# CP866 (Cyrillic - Russian), CP932 (Japanese - Shift-JIS),
# CP936 (Simpl. Chinese), CP949 (Korean Hangul), CP950 (Trad. Chin.).
# UNIX: ISO8859-1 (Western European), ISO8859-2 (Eastern Eu.),
# ISO8859-5 (Russian Cyrillic), KOI8-R (Alt-Russ. Cyril.), 
# CP1251 (Belarusian/Bulgarian), KOI8-U (Ukrainian)
# Basically, all charsets, supported by iconv(3) are permitted here
# See iconv -l for complete list of encodings
#
#
# Note that UTF8 is also supported and Samba3 defaults to it in unix
# and display charsets. I.E. default settings are:
#
# dos charset = CP850
# unix charset = UTF8
# display charset = 
#
# This is an example for Russian users:
;   dos charset = CP866
;   unix charset = CP1251
;   display charset = LOCALE
# Please note that KOI8-R *does not* contain the NUMERO SIGN (N) which is
# in CP866 and therefore there will be problems when unix charset is KOI8-R
dos charset = CP866
unix charset = UTF8
display charset = LOCALE
#unix charset = CP1251
#display charset = UTF8

# 1. Server Naming Options:
# workgroup = NT-Domain-Name or Workgroup-Name
##   workgroup = ALTDOMAIN
workgroup = aud411

# netbios name is the name you will see in "Network Neighbourhood",
# but defaults to your hostname
;  netbios name = 
netbios name = teacher

# server string is the equivalent of the NT Description field
   server string =  Samba server on %h (v. %v)

# Message command is run by samba when a "popup" message is sent to it.
# The example below is for use with LinPopUp:
; message command = /usr/bin/linpopup "%f" "%m" %s; rm %s

# 2. Printing Options:
# CHANGES TO ENABLE PRINTING ON ALL CUPS PRINTERS IN THE NETWORK
# (as cups is now used in ALT Linux by default)
# if you want to automatically load your printer list rather
# than setting them up individually then you'll need this
   printcap name = cups
   load printers = yes

# It should not be necessary to spell out the print system type unless
# yours is non-standard. Currently supported print systems include:
# bsd, sysv, plp, lprng, aix, hpux, qnx, cups
   printing = cups

# Samba 3.0 supports the Windows NT-style point-and-print feature. To
# use this, you need to be able to upload print drivers to the samba
# server. The printer admins (or root) may install drivers onto samba.
# Note that this feature uses the print$ share, so you will need to 
# enable it below.
# This parameter works like domain admin group:
# printer admin = @ 
;   printer admin = @adm

# 3. Logging Options:
# this tells Samba to use a separate log file for each machine
# that connects
   log file = /var/log/samba/log.%m

# Put a capping on the size of the log files (in Kb).
   max log size = 50

# Set the log (verbosity) level (0 <= log level <= 10)
; log level = 3

# 4. Security and Domain Membership Options:
# This option is important for security. It allows you to restrict
# connections to machines which are on your local network. The
# following example restricts access to two C class networks and
# the "loopback" interface. For more examples of the syntax see
# the smb.conf man page. Do not enable this if (tcp/ip) name resolution does
# not work for all the hosts in your network.
;   hosts allow = 192.168.1. 192.168.2. 127.

# Uncomment this if you want a guest account, you must add this to /etc/pаsswd
# otherwise the user "nobody" is used
;  guest account = pcguest
guest account = nobody

# Security mode. Most people will want user level security. See
# security_level.txt for details.
# With winbind security should be 'user', 'domain' or 'ads'
# (for Active Directory)
# It is strongly recommended to run winbindd, even on PDC in order to
# optimize performance
   security = user

# Active Directory support requires following options properly set up
# Please read ADS-related chapter in Samba HOWTO Collection before
# dealing with them!
;	password server = 
;	realm = 

# Use password server option only with security = server or security = domain
# When using security = domain, you should use password server = *
;   password server = 
;   password server = *

# Password Level allows matching of _n_ characters of the password for
# all combinations of upper and lower case.
;  password level = 8
;  username level = 8

# You may wish to use password encryption. Please read
# ENCRYPTION.txt, Win95.txt and WinNT.txt in the Samba documentation.
# Do not enable this option unless you have read those documents
# Encrypted passwords are required for any use of samba in a Windows NT domain
# The smbpasswd file is only required by a server doing authentication, thus
# members of a domain do not need one.
# Please remember: ADS management *requires* passwords to be encrypted
  encrypt passwords = yes
  smb passwd file = /etc/samba/smbpasswd

# The following are needed to allow password changing from Windows to
# also update the Linux system password.
# NOTE: Use these with 'encrypt passwords' and 'smb passwd file' above.
# NOTE2: You do NOT need these to allow workstations to change only
#        the encrypted SMB passwords. They allow the Unix password
#        to be kept in sync with the SMB password.
;  unix password sync = Yes
;  passwd program = /usr/bin/passwd %u
;  passwd chat = *New*UNIX*password* %n\n *ReType*new*UNIX*password* %n\n
;*passwd:*all*authentication*tokens*updated*successfully*

# Unix users can map to different SMB User names
;  username map = /etc/samba/smbusers

# Using the following line enables you to customise your configuration
# on a per machine basis. The %m gets replaced with the netbios name
# of the machine that is connecting
;   include = /etc/samba/smb.conf.%m

# Options for using winbind. Winbind allows you to do all account and
# authentication from a Windows or samba domain controller, creating
# accounts on the fly, and maintaining a mapping of Windows RIDs to unix uid's 
# and gid's. winbind uid and winbind gid are the only required parameters.
#
# winbind uid is the range of uid's winbind can use when mapping RIDs to uid's
;  winbind uid = 10000-20000
#
# winbind gid is the range of uid's winbind can use when mapping RIDs to gid's
;  winbind gid = 10000-20000
#
# winbind separator is the character a user must use between their domain
# name and username, defaults to "\"
;  winbind separator = @
# winbind use default domain is switch which forces winbind to treat users
# without domain as members of default domain (set in smb.conf)
# Default is False
;  winbind use default domain = False
#
#
# template homedir determines the home directory for winbind users, with 
# %D expanding to their domain name and %U expanding to their username.
# Make sure that PAM-entry for application which uses pam_winbind is able 
# to auto-create those directories using something like pam_mkhomedir.
# Also, make sure that domain (%D) directory do exist in advance
# as pam_mkhomedir does not create it
;  template homedir = /home/%D/%U
#
# template shell determines the shell users authenticated by winbind get
;  template shell = /bin/bash

# 5. Browser Control and Networking Options:
# Most people will find that this option gives better performance.
# See Samba HOWTO Collection and the manual pages for details
   socket options = TCP_NODELAY

# Configure Samba to use multiple interfaces
# If you have multiple network interfaces then you must list them
# here. See the man page for details.
;   interfaces = 192.168.12.2/24 192.168.13.2/24 
   interfaces = 10.0.11.254/24
;   здесь указывается интерфейс на котором работает samba.
;   если в логах /var/log/samba/nmbd.log [log.nmbd] есть сообщения об ошибке,
;   то надо попробовать вписать IP-адрес локальной машины


# Configure remote browse list synchronisation here
#  request announcement to, or browse list sync from:
#       a specific host or from / to a whole subnet (see below)
;   remote browse sync = 192.168.3.25 192.168.5.255
# Cause this host to announce itself to local subnets here
;   remote announce = 192.168.1.255 192.168.2.44

# set local master to no if you don't want Samba to become a master
# browser on your network. Otherwise the normal election rules apply
;   local master = no

# OS Level determines the precedence of this server in master browser
# elections. The default value should be reasonable for client (33)
;   os level = 33

# Domain Master specifies Samba to be the Domain Master Browser. This
# allows Samba to collate browse lists between subnets. Don't use this
# if you already have a Windows NT domain controller doing this job
;   domain master = yes 

# Preferred Master causes Samba to force a local browser election on startup
# and gives it a slightly higher chance of winning the election
;   preferred master = yes

# 6. Domain Control Options:
# Enable this if you want Samba to be a domain logon server for 
# Windows95 workstations or Primary Domain Controller for WinNT and Win2k
;   domain logons = yes

# if you enable domain logons then you may want a per-machine or
# per user logon script
# run a specific logon batch file per workstation (machine)
;   logon script = %m.bat
# run a specific logon batch file per username
;   logon script = %U.bat

# Where to store roaming profiles for WinNT and Win2k
#        %L substitutes for this servers netbios name, %U is username
#        You must uncomment the [Profiles] share below
;   logon path = \\%L\Profiles\%U

# Where to store roaming profiles for Win9x. Be careful with this as it also
# impacts where Win2k finds it's /HOME share
; logon home = \\%L\%U\.profile

# The add user script is used by a domain member to add local user accounts
# that have been authenticated by the domain controller, or by the domain
# controller to add local machine accounts when adding machines to the domain.
# The script must work from the command line when replacing the macros,
# or the operation will fail. Check that groups exist if forcing a group.
# Script for domain controller for adding machines:
; add machine script = /usr/sbin/useradd -d /dev/null \
  -g machines -c 'Machine Account' -s /bin/false -M %u
# Script for domain member for adding local accounts for authenticated users:
; add user script = /usr/sbin/useradd -s /bin/false %u

# Domain groups:
# Domain groups are handled by 'net groupmap' instead of smb.conf, 
# read net(8) for more

# Admin accounts:
# Administrative accounts are handled by 'net rpc rights',
# see net(8) and WHATSNEW.TXT for more

# 7. Name Resolution Options:
# All NetBIOS names must be resolved to IP Addresses
# 'Name Resolve Order' allows the named resolution mechanism to be specified
# the default order is "host lmhosts wins bcast". "host" means use the unix
# system gethostbyname() function call that will use either /etc/hosts OR
# DNS or NIS depending on the settings of /etc/host.config, /etc/nsswitch.conf
# and the /etc/resolv.conf file. "host" therefore is system configuration
# dependant. This parameter is most often of use to prevent DNS lookups
# in order to resolve NetBIOS names to IP Addresses. Use with care!
# The example below excludes use of name resolution for machines that are NOT
# on the local network segment
# - OR - are not deliberately to be known via lmhosts or via WINS.
#
; name resolve order = wins lmhosts bcast

# Windows Internet Name Serving Support Section:
# WINS Support - Tells the NMBD component of Samba to enable it's WINS Server
;   wins support = yes

# WINS Server - Tells the NMBD components of Samba to be a WINS Client
#       Note: Samba can be either a WINS Server, or a WINS Client, but NOT both
;   wins server = w.x.y.z

# WINS Proxy - Tells Samba to answer name resolution queries on
# behalf of a non WINS capable client, for this to work there must be
# at least one  WINS Server on the network. The default is NO.
;   wins proxy = yes

# DNS Proxy - tells Samba whether or not to try to resolve NetBIOS names
# via DNS nslookups. The built-in default for versions 1.9.17 is yes,
# this has been changed in version 1.9.18 to no.
   dns proxy = no 

# 8. File Naming Options:
# Case Preservation can be handy - system default is _no_
# NOTE: These can be set on a per share basis
;  preserve case = no
;  short preserve case = no
# Default case is normally upper case for all DOS files
;  default case = lower
# Be very careful with case sensitivity - it can break things!
;  case sensitive = no

# Use sendfile to speed up ReadX and similar requests
# We beleive that past problems with Win9X are fixed now
    use sendfile = yes
    

#============================ Share Definitions ==============================
[homes]
   comment = Home Directory for '%u'
   browseable = no
   writable = yes

# Un-comment the following and create the netlogon directory for Domain Logons
; [netlogon]
;   comment = Network Logon Service
;   path = /var/lib/samba/netlogon
;   guest ok = yes
;   writable = no

#Uncomment the following 2 lines if you would like your login scripts to
#be created dynamically by ntlogon (check that you have it in the correct
#location (the default of the ntlogon rpm available in contribs)
;root preexec = /usr/bin/ntlogon -u %U -g %G -o %a -d /var/lib/samba/netlogon
;root postexec = rm -f /var/lib/samba/netlogon/%U.bat

# Un-comment the following to provide a specific roving profile share
# the default is to use the user's home directory
;[Profiles]
;    path = /var/lib/samba/profiles
;    browseable = no
;    guest ok = yes


# NOTE: If you have a CUPS print system there is no need to 
# specifically define each individual printer.
# You must configure the samba printers with the appropriate Windows
# drivers on your Windows clients. On the Samba server no filtering is
# done. If you wish that the server provides the driver and the clients
# send PostScript ("Generic PostScript Printer" under Windows), you have
# to swap the 'print command' line below with the commented one.
;[printers]
;   comment = All Printers
;   path = /var/spool/samba
;   browseable = no
# to allow user 'guest account' to print.
;   guest ok = yes
;   writable = no
;   printable = yes
;   create mode = 0700
# =====================================
# print command: see above for details.
# =====================================
;   print command = lpr-cups -P %p -o raw %s -r # using client side
#                                               # printer drivers.
;;   print command = lpr-cups -P %p %s # using cups own drivers 
#                                      #(use generic PostScript on clients).
# The following two commands are the samba defaults for printing=cups
# change them only if you need different options:
;   lpq command = lpq -P %p
;   lprm command = cancel %p-%j

# This share is used for Windows NT-style point-and-print support.
# To be able to install drivers, you need to be either root, or listed
# in the printer admin parameter above. Note that you also need write access
# to the directory and share definition to be able to upload the drivers.
# For more information on this, please see the Printing Support Section of
# /usr/share/doc/samba-/docs/Samba-HOWTO-Collection.pdf 
;[print$]
;   path = /var/lib/samba/printers
;   browseable = yes
;   read only = yes
;   write list = @adm root

# This is 'a must' when you'd like to support quotas on your shares.
# Quotas are set up per mount point and can be changed from Win2K/XP/2K3
# Explorer's share 'properties' dialog when browsing the share as Domain Admin. 
# Quotas are supported and tested on Ext2/3 and XFS file systems.
# It is important to represent mount point as 'drive' share (C$/D$/etc)
# otherwise Win2K/XP/2K3 would not issue proper RPC calls.
# Note also that domain separator should be exact as set above for winbind
;[C$]
;   comment = Administrative share for homes
;   path = /home
;   admin users = @"DOMAIN\\Domain Admins"
;   valid users = @"DOMAIN\\Domain Admins"
;   writable = yes

# This one is useful for people to share files
;[tmp]
;   comment = Temporary file space
;   path = /tmp
;   read only = no
;   public = yes

# A publicly accessible directory, but read only, except for people in
# the "staff" group
;[public]
;   comment = Public Stuff
;   path = /home/samba/public
;   public = yes
;   writable = no
;   write list = @staff

# Other examples. 
#
# A private printer, usable only by Fred. Spool data will be placed in Fred's
# home directory. Note that fred must have write access to the spool directory,
# wherever it is.
;[fredsprn]
;   comment = Fred's Printer
;   valid users = fred
;   path = /homes/fred
;   printer = freds_printer
;   public = no
;   writable = no
;   printable = yes

# A private directory, usable only by Fred. Note that Fred requires write
# access to the directory.
;[fredsdir]
;   comment = Fred's Service
;   path = /usr/somewhere/private
;   valid users = fred
;   public = no
;   writable = yes
;   printable = no

# a service which has a different directory for each machine that connects
# this allows you to tailor configurations to incoming machines. You could
# also use the %u option to tailor it by user name.
# The %m gets replaced with the machine name that is connecting.
;[pchome]
;  comment = PC Directories
;  path = /usr/pc/%m
;  public = no
;  writable = yes

# A publicly accessible directory, read/write to all users. Note that all files
# created in the directory by users will be owned by the default user, so
# any user with access can delete any other user's files. Obviously this
# directory must be writable by the default user. Another user could of course
# be specified, in which case all files would be owned by that user instead.
;[public]
;   path = /usr/somewhere/else/public
;   public = yes
;   only guest = yes
;   writable = yes
;   printable = no

# The following two entries demonstrate how to share a directory so that two
# users can place files there that will be owned by the specific users. In this
# setup, the directory should be writable by both users and should have the
# sticky bit set on it to prevent abuse. Obviously this could be extended to
# as many users as required.
;[myshare]
;   comment = Mary's and Fred's stuff
;   path = /usr/somewhere/shared
;   valid users = mary fred
;   public = no
;   writable = yes
;   printable = no
;   create mask = 0765

[files]
  comment = files in aud411
  path = /home/netclass
  valid users = student teacher nobody
  public = yes

[alt]
  comment = ALTLinux lite
  path = /home/alt/ALTLinux.4.0-lite/
  valid users = student teacher nobody
  public = yes


 


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